MGMT 4201 Leading Teams (4 Credits)
“Leading teams” is a graduate course to prepare students to provide formal and informal leadership to a team. Students will learn about the fundamental design principles of high-performing teams as well as common pitfalls that teams are subject to. Students will also learn about how to sustain team performance through effective information-sharing, decision-making, and conflict management. Students will also cover current topics in teams including virtual teams, team creativity and team-based innovation. This course is designed to stimulate student learning by letting students integrate abstract knowledge through concrete firsthand experiences.
MGMT 4202 Leading Self (4 Credits)
The purpose of this course is to provide insight into why and how sustainable desired change occurs at the level of individual human/social interaction. This course will focus on providing students the critical skills to “lead the self” towards personal/professional goals as the context for studying intentional change. Students will revisit assumptions held about themselves as they develop intentional strategic approaches to identify career opportunities in their selected fields and lead the self towards the accomplishment of professional objectives.
MGMT 4203 Leading Organizations (4 Credits)
Students will develop the ability to think strategically by examining a firm’s mission, vision, and values, business model and financial health of the organization. After assessing the firm’s strengths and weaknesses, the focus is then placed on the industry and competitive environments using a series of tools and frameworks that result in identifying opportunities and threats. Synthesis in the course takes place when the student is able to provide strategic recommendations that generate added value and competitive advantage for the firm. Learning is facilitated through a work-shop atmosphere that uses case studies of industry leaders currently in the news.
MGMT 4204 Springboard (1 Credit)
This course helps you to develop your abilities as a leader and follower working in teams; since most success and progress in business will take place by working with others. Your personal development as a leader and follower is thus of the utmost importance. In short, we hope to fire your imagination as to what is possible, as well as ground your dreams in the realities and complexities of working in the 21st Century. The personal development aspect begins with self-awareness in Leading at the Edge. Within the first few weeks of their graduate program, students are taken to a nature camp 9,000 feet up into the Rocky Mountains where they participate in an intensive (some say “grueling”) three-day exercise in self-awareness, outdoor leadership, team-building, and problem solving. Unlike most “rocks ‘n ropes” exercises, this intellectually rigorous component, often referred to as Leading at the Edge, is designed to enhance the classwork students engage in, especially in working together on the challenging exercises that make up the MS in Management program. The value creation aspect is supported by a series of workshops.” In these workshops, students will focus on applying their new found knowledge to real world situations. The purpose of these Daniels Engagements is to match the personal development aspects of Leading at the Edge with discussions and exercises on creating value, for your self and for your organization, but for the community and for the larger social realms in which businesses operate. For the exercises, students will explore and discuss some of the definitive writings by thought leaders on business. This is intended to facilitate learning basic “business literacy” – exposure to fundamental ideas and concepts that business leaders and writers currently struggle – and to provide material with which to engage your developing skills in (1) critical and creative thinking, and (2) clear communication with others.
MGMT 4240 Global Business (2 Credits)
The International Experience is designed to expose students to the challenges and opportunities of doing business globally. How do you make well-informed decisions in a global environment, taking into consideration the economic, political, environmental, cultural and historical context of a particular country or region? Conducting business outside the United States involves a unique set of challenges; diverse cultures, laws, languages, and currencies add to the complexity of putting together and managing international business ventures. The international experience will help you prepare for these types of activities by exploring the basic questions which focus on various aspects of international business. As a part of the international trip, students will meet with business executives and organizational leaders across a variety of industries to gain a broad understanding of the business environment in a host country. In addition to completing secondary research beforehand, students will also be responsible for conducting primary research by setting up small team meetings in-country in order to develop a hands-on understanding of the business environment on the ground. Another aspect of the trip will include working with a non-profit or other NGO on a social capital project while in the host country, to allow students to experience, personally, the local cultural and socio-economic environment.
MGMT 4280 Business Design (4 Credits)
Each student learns an organized approach to rapid design of a business with a sustainable competitive advantage based upon innovations(s) to the business model. That innovation(s) is discovered through an investigation of the existing business models and the competitive landscape including: suppliers, customers, competitors, substitutes and barriers of entry. Specific opportunities are identified through investigation of the following: industry, market, and competition. Opportunities to create competitive advantages are investigated through the design of strategies in: marketing, sales, operations, human capital, social responsibility, financing, corporate governance and technology. The course offers a workshop atmosphere in which students are expected to apply and discuss the various aspects of business planning. The result is a written business plan and presentation to funding sources reflecting a sustainable competitive advantage and creation of a defensible market.
MGMT 4301 Organizational Psychology (4 Credits)
This course focuses on psychosocial and behavioral issues in management and leadership to better understand how to drive performance and well-being. The course is founded upon an interdisciplinary approach, with major inputs coming from social psychology, administrative science, engineering, medicine, sociology, and philosophy. The course will center around behavioral analysis and organizational concepts. Students will gain a solid understanding of the latest in organizational psychology from a declarative knowledge standpoint, then put this knowledge into use for procedural knowledge.
MGMT 4302 Leading Talent (4 Credits)
A management course for graduate students grounded in a strong foundation of real experiences managing and leading Human Resource organizations. This course is designed to unify strategy, human resource strategy and principles of management in a highly interactive format employing multiple learning methods.
MGMT 4303 Negotiations and Change (4 Credits)
Negotiations take place daily throughout our lives. Whether it is negotiating as a student with a professor on an assignment extension, a job candidate with a potential employer on salary and benefits, or a chief executive within an organization executing on its strategy, we must know how and when to leverage negotiating strategies and skills in order to achieve a successful outcome. This course explores, through a variety of scenarios, real-world cases, simulations, and role-plays, how negotiators leverage their skills to execute on their strategies to either arrive at a satisfactory agreement or to simply back away from the negotiating table without a deal. Sometimes the best deal, is no deal at all. We will explore a number of perspectives including: (1) Definition and characteristics of negotiations, (2) Interdependence and Relationships of the parties, (3) Dynamics of conflict and conflict management, (4) Integrative negotiating process, (5) Negotiating strategy, (6) Ethical conduct, (7) Communications, (8) Negotiating power, (9) Multiple parties, groups, and teams in negotiations, (10) International and Cross-cultural, (11) and Best practices.
MGMT 4304 Project Management for Leaders (4 Credits)
This course will introduce the student to the key elements of a successful project delivery system. The project delivery system consists of five components: training, tools, core skills, company support, and a project delivery process. The process is the means by which projects are consistently and efficiently planned, executed, and completed to the satisfaction of clients. The system is aligned with the principles of a total quality improvement program, namely client focus, project manager commitment, evaluation and measurement, corporate support, and continuous improvement.
MGMT 4305 Business Model Design and Innovation (2 Credits)
Each student learns an organized approach to rapid design of a business with a sustainable competitive advantage based upon innovations(s) to the business model. Innovation(s) is discovered through an investigation of the existing business models and the industry landscape including: customers, competitors, substitutes, suppliers, and barriers to entry. Specific opportunities are identified through investigation of the following: industry, market, and competition. Opportunities to create competitive advantages are investigated through the design of financial, marketing, sales, operation, talent, technology, and social responsibility strategies. The course offers a workshop atmosphere in which students are expected to apply and discuss the various aspects of a Business Model and a Business Plan. The result is a written business plan and presentation to a potential funding panel.
MGMT 4306 Virtual Business Management Simulation (2 Credits)
The focus of this course is on gaining new venture experience. Through an online/virtual computer simulation, students will be placed into a very realistic international business setting, where they will start up and run a company through multiple rounds of decision-making. The online simulation allows students to build entrepreneurial firms, experiment with strategies, and compete with other student teams in a virtual business world. Designed to mimic the competitive, ever changing marketplace, the simulation lets students gain experience in market analysis, strategy formulation, and the management of a new venture.
MGMT 4330 Financials for Leaders (2 Credits)
This course is intended to help students develop a financial decision-making framework that can be used to assess and understand how financial decisions positively and negatively affect their company’s short-and long-term well-being. Its emphasis is to introduce students to various tools and techniques used in financial management and to demonstrate how they are applied to the managerial decision-making process. This will be accomplished through a combination of class discussions and case study analyses. Topics include decision making, financial statements, ratio analysis, and return-on-investment.
MGMT 4340 Strategic Human Resource Mgmt (4 Credits)
This course focuses on the effective management of human resources in order to create sustained competitive advantage. The course covers the major policy areas of employee influence mechanisms, staffing, training and development, performance appraisal, reward systems, and work design so that students are better prepared to provide direction to the creation and implementation of effective management systems. Prerequisite: MGMT 3900 or permission of instructor.
MGMT 4345 Performance & Rewards System (4 Credits)
Measuring and improving human performance, techniques of individual objective settings including MBO, appraisal and feedback systems, creating and managing compensation programs, job design, analysis and redesign of reward systems in various organizational contexts. Prerequisite: MBA 4121 or equivalent.
MGMT 4350 Business Summit Series: Current Business Issues and Topics (4 Credits)
The Business Summit Series is an elective course that provides students with insights into a variety of contemporary business issues and topics with a practical approach to developing business leadership skills and competencies. Before the course commences, students are invited to provide input and help faculty select the topics that are covered in the series. The faculty will develop modules, with each module covering a discrete business topic a workshop format. The workshops are taught in four-hour segments, with some workshops covering more than four hours, depending on content and learning outcomes. Workshops span practical topics that are not covered in-depth during the core PMBA curriculum, and they also include emerging business subjects. Topics include: Go-To-Market Strategy, Business Development Strategies, Mastering Sales Techniques, Business Consulting Skills, Becoming a Manager, Organizational Change Leadership, Franchise Business Model, and Colorado's Marijuana Industry. Other emerging business topics may include the Colorado small business market and new industry segments. Industry leaders may present to the class as subject matter experts.
MGMT 4401 Global Leadership (4 Credits)
The operation of a far-flung global enterprise (large or small) imposes special demands upon its leaders. This course explores, through a variety of leadership perspectives, actions and strategies that can be employed to succeed in a global firm. These perspectives include: (1) the headquarters and chief executive officer; (2) global functional disciplines (with special emphasis on global human resource management); (3) the country manager; (4) the global product/service manager; and (5) the host country. Throughout the course, students will systematically examine the cross-cultural, operational and ethical complexities of leading and managing a truly "global" company.
MGMT 4402 Ethical Leadership (4 Credits)
Consideration of ethics in business and organizations is relevant for being an effective and successful manager and leader. The course is designed to strengthen capacities in terms of ethical awareness, analysis, and application. An important learning outcome of the course is to facilitate the growth of students in terms of making practically wise and ethically sound decisions in their future careers. Decisions include fulfilling responsibilities to create and sustain ethical climates and cultures for teams, business units, and organizations. This course introduces students to fundamental ethical concepts and ethical decision making frameworks. Students will apply these frameworks to cases and issues relevant to one’s role as a future manager and leader. Students will also be introduced current research in moral psychology and behavioral ethics, and students will apply this knowledge in assessing a current case related to business and management ethics. The course will cover current issues such as sexual harassment, privacy in the workplace, and whistleblowing. Students will develop a personalized values-based leadership plan.
MGMT 4403 Business and Society (2 Credits)
This course examines the role of business in society and explores important issues in the relationships between business, government, and society. These issues are approached from a stakeholder perspective, integrating business strategy with law, ethics, and social responsibility. The obligations of business to its multiple stakeholders are established and applied through analysis of companies, cases, and current events.
MGMT 4405 Strategic Execution and Summit Team Competition and Assessment (3 Credits)
Strategic Execution is a Challenge Driven Educational (CDE) course that builds off several previous MS Management courses. Students will leverage the contents from accounting, finance, management, marketing, strategy, and business analytics to engage with corporate partners to examine real-world problems. This course provides you with the opportunity to apply what you have learned so far in the MSM program with a live client. You will work on a project focused on business and management. Scoping the project will be a key learning outcome.
MGMT 4410 Qualitative Research Methods (2 Credits)
This course provides students with an overview of and experience with qualitative methods. You are introduced to a wide variety of qualitative methods, including ethnography, observation, interviewing, grounded theory, discourse analysis, deconstruction, historical methods, and action research. The course is roughly divided into two major sections. The first half of the course introduces you to the epistemological foundations of qualitative research and emphasizes design and data collection. The second half of the course introduces a variety of techniques for coding and analyzing qualitative data and provides exposure to many exemplars of qualitative reports/studies. We will examine conventions for ensuring that qualitative work is rigorous and appropriate for action. Throughout the course you will be given opportunities to try on various methods and gain some hands-on experience in several areas.
MGMT 4450 Power and Influence (4 Credits)
This course presents conceptual models, tactical approaches, and self-assessment tools to help you understand political dynamics as they unfold around you, and to develop your own influence style and negotiation skill. By focusing on specific expressions of power and influence, this course gives you the opportunity to observe its effective—and ineffective—use in different contexts and stages of a person’s career. This course will challenge you to define for yourself what will constitute the effective exercise of power and influence in your life.
MGMT 4490 Global Strategy (4 Credits)
Management of multinational enterprises; identification, analysis, and discussion of key policy issues for the international manager within various functional areas; home and host country relationships including assessment of political risk, selection of foreign locations, entry and ownership strategy, personnel and staffing considerations, technology transfer, multinational labor relations, organizing for international operations. Prerequisite: Should be taken in the last possible quarter before graduation and after completion of all advanced requirements and ITEC 3900, MGMT 3900, MKTG 3900, STAT 3910, and FIN 4610.
MGMT 4503 Comparative Management (2 Credits)
Exploration of similarities and dissimilarities of management practices in various cultures, determination of political, economic and cultural factors primarily affecting management theory and practice, transferability of certain management practices to other cultures. Introduction to basic assumptions and approaches of comparative research methodology. Prerequisite: MBA 4121.
MGMT 4515 Introduction to Sport and Entertainment Management (4 Credits)
The purpose of this course is to provide students with a very broad but significant exposure to the business of sports, which represents a global, multi-billion dollar industry. By critically analyzing numerous facets within this business from the perspective of a manager, student come away with knowledge that is wide enough but deep enough to foster a solid understanding of this dynamic and exciting industry. At the same time, this course provides students with specific and valuable insights that foster and stimulate deeper interest in a particular aspect within this industry through subsequent and additional coursework, independent study, and/or internship opportunities.
MGMT 4520 Managing Sport & Entertainment Contracts (4 Credits)
This is a comprehensive and interactive seminar on managing sports and entertainment contracts. The class covers intellectual property; the role of entertainment and sports managers and agents; general contract principles and theory; contract negotiation; management and operating agreements; and sponsorship, endorsement, and licensing agreements.
MGMT 4525 Facility Management (4 Credits)
What is a Public Assembly Facility? Public assembly facilities such as arenas, stadiums, convention centers, and theatres evolved out of the need by social communities to build permanent structures for public assembly, for political and commercial activities, religion, sports, spectacles, artistic expression and for commercial and educational assemblies. This course examines the specific areas of responsibility that one must acknowledge and understand to operate a successful venue of this type. We discuss the core competencies required and the unique areas of concentration that separate a public assembly facility from other venue types. Students realize the significant impact and benefit that facilities like these have on the social, educational and economic environment of communities.
MGMT 4530 Technologies for Sport & Entertainment Management (2 Credits)
This is a specialized course for the MBA student interested in expanding their knowledge of the sports industry as a business and as a world economic force. It provides students with a framework for understanding the scope of the sports business across various venues, as it relates to information technology. Management Sport Technology focuses on understanding the practical uses of computer applications as a tool in sport management activities. Emphasis is placed on demonstrated proficiency in project management, spreadsheet management, database management, and Web page development.
MGMT 4535 Managing Sponsorships for Sport & Entertainment Events (2 Credits)
The purpose of this course is to give students an understanding of sports sponsorship from the perspective of the corporate sponsor and the sports entity. The course identifies and describes the several media distribution channels that are used in corporate sports sponsorship. In addition, students learn how to use sports media distribution properties to create an effective sports marketing plan for corporate sponsors. Students put together a corporate sports marketing plan with a sample sports team.
MGMT 4540 Advanced Seminar in Sports and Entertainment Management (4 Credits)
The purpose of this seminar is to consider current topics in sport and entertainment management. Topics vary by quarter depending on timeliness of topics and interest of students. Potential topics may include public policy questions; ethical issues; current economic impacts and analysis; sport and entertainment management factors and how the various segments (professional, amateur, collegiate, high school, recreational and others) relate; environmental impacts; global issues and other issues that impact the current and future fields of sport and entertainment management.
MGMT 4545 Leadership, Team, and Career Development (2 Credits)
Daniels MBA students are preparing for leadership roles-as entrepreneurs, in corporations, and in not-for-profit organizations. In this course we will look at leadership from a variety of perspectives. Once we have reviewed what the experts have to say about leadership, we will turn our focus to helping you develop your personal theory of leadership. You will answer on important questions: How will I lead? Armed with this knowledge, you will be better equipped to handle leadership challenges as you go forward in life.
MGMT 4555 Interdisciplinary Projects for National Park Service (4 Credits)
A practical application of key business and managerial knowledge, skills, and competencies designed to integrate graduate program elements and provide students with a unique opportunity to work on value-add projects with key managers from the National Park Service. This is an experiential course for integrating and applying multi-disciplined learning outcomes and experiences to real-world challenges, problems, and dilemmas, resulting in solutions for the National Parks Service.
MGMT 4560 Leadership of the Future (4 Credits)
In nearly every aspect of life - science, business, pop culture, environment, technology, global politics - we are inundated with data about how much and how fast the world is changing. How will these major shifts impact what we think of as leadership, and how can one develop to be prepared to lead in a fast-moving, volatile, and complex world? Leadership of the Future is a course that takes a deep look at how we’ve thought about what “leadership” is in the past from a business perspective, and considers what the future will require of leaders as they seek to effectively lead and make a difference in a complex world. The course is founded upon an interdisciplinary approach, drawing from a variety of disciplines including psychology, administrative science, literature, medicine, and philosophy. The course will center around behavioral analysis and active reflective practice: together we will think deeply about leadership as a behavior within a particular context, and as a practice to cultivate. Students will articulate a set of leadership development goals for themselves and engage experientially in service of self-observation, personal growth, and learning. Cross-listed with MGMT 3560.
MGMT 4620 Organizational Dynamics (4 Credits)
In this course, you will: (1) understand and develop a set of management and leadership skills critical for effectiveness in high performance work environments; (2) develop the ability to analyze organizations and environments from multiple perspectives; (3) explore policies and practices for facilitating organizational change; (4) become a valued and effective member of a work team; and (5) learn how to incorporate effective communication, critical thinking, creative problem solving, and technology, into organizational behaviors and processes.
MGMT 4625 Leading People & Organizations (4 Credits)
This course focuses on the effective management of people, every organization’s most critical resource. Employees’ knowledge, skills, commitment, creativity, and effort are the basis for sustained competitive advantage. It is people who deal directly with customers, have creative ideas for new products or for process improvements, who devise marketing strategy or take technologies to the next level. In this course, we approach the people side of business from a general management perspective, integrating concepts from organizational behavior, human resource management, strategy, and organizational design. Course topics include motivation, reward systems, engagement; feedback; processes by which work is done and decisions are made, including attention to teams, power dynamics, conflict, and negotiations; the structure of the organization and its systems, including job and organizational design and systems and policies affecting human capital; the organization’s culture and history; and the external environment within which the organization operates, including legal, regulatory, demographic, economic and national cultural factors.
MGMT 4630 Strategic Human Resources Management (4 Credits)
This course advances the argument that effective human resource policies will create sustained competitive advantage. To that end, this course will address the effective management of human resources in various policy areas: staffing, diversity, training and development, voice and influence, performance appraisal, and reward systems. Rather than taking a traditional, staff personnel perspective, we will discuss human resource management from the strategic perspective of a general manager. Prerequisite: MGMT 4620.
MGMT 4650 Introduction to Management Consulting (4 Credits)
This course is designed to provide a broad overview of the management consulting profession, including its industry and competitive dynamics, major practice areas, approaches to implementation, management of consulting firms and the future of consulting. In addition, emphasis is given to the practice of consulting through the development of certain high impact skills in evaluation, proposal writing, data gathering and client presentations. The course is relevant to those who: 1) are specifically interested in consulting careers, 2) have job interests that involve staff positions in corporations, 3) want to become line managers who might one day use consultants, 4) wish to develop general consulting skills and familiarity with the consulting industry. The learning process in class will consist of lectures, cases, readings, exercises and guest speakers. This wide variety of learning methods is intended to convey both the necessary knowledge and practical skills necessary for building a sound foundation for becoming a professional consultant. It is essential that everyone comes well-prepared to class, as the learning process depends heavily upon participation.
MGMT 4690 Strategic Management (4 Credits)
This course builds from the premise that managers make decisions that influence the overall success of their organizations. We will concentrate on how top managers create and maximize value for their stakeholders. You will learn about how companies compete against each other in the quest of achieving high performance and market victories. You will learn about how and why some companies are successful while others are not. This course is about strategy. The primary task of strategy is the allocation and commitment of critical resources over relatively long periods of time in pursuit of specific goals and objectives. Strategic decisions take account of the conditions that prevail within the industry environment, both positive and negative, and the resources and capabilities available to managers for meeting environmental challenges. Strategy also requires establishing and managing an internal organizational system that creates and sustains strategic value.
MGMT 4700 Topics in Management (1-4 Credits)
MGMT 4710 Sustaining Family Enterprises (4 Credits)
Family enterprises have a tremendous impact on our local, national and global economies. Today, the definition of the family enterprise extends beyond just the business entity. It includes family offices, family "banks," family councils, trusts, and family foundations, just to name a few. Further, what happens in, and how decisions are made by, family enterprise affects not only the active family members but other key stakeholders such as inactive family members, in-laws, non-family managers and employees, professional advisors, customers, suppliers and competitors. This course gives students insight into the universe of possibilities that families, enterprises and their advisors face when engaged in systemic transition planning. This highly interdisciplinary course is appropriate for anyone who intends to work in or with family enterprises. This includes family members, accountants, attorneys, estate planners, financial or wealth managers, family office professionals, insurance consultants, business advisors, management consultants, organizational and leadership development experts, international business professionals, psychologists, social workers, and family therapists.
MGMT 4740 Global Business I (2 Credits)
Almost all business is impacted by global trends. This course will help students develop a global mindset and understand challenges and opportunities arising from doing business across national boundaries and cultures. Addressing such issues as diverse cultures, laws, languages, currencies and economic contexts, the course will help students make well-informed decisions giving due consideration to the local and global context in which a given business operates. This course must be taken prior to MGMT 4745 and both courses are to be taken as a sequential series.
MGMT 4745 Global Business II (2 Credits)
Almost all business is impacted by global trends. This course will help students develop a global mindset and understand challenges and opportunities arising from doing business across national boundaries and cultures. Addressing such issues as diverse cultures, laws, languages, currencies and economic contexts, the course will help students make well-informed decisions giving due consideration to the local and global context in which a given business operates. This course must be taken after MGMT 4740 and both courses are to be taken as a sequential series.
MGMT 4790 Managing Strategic Alliances (4 Credits)
The purpose of this course is to examine and expand upon the current understanding of the challenges of developing and managing strategic alliances. Reflecting the breadth of the novel features of the structure, the course draws from both strategic management and organizational behavioral disciplines. To order the discussion, we take a process view in addressing why and then how to use a strategic alliance. We initially focus on when to use an alliance. We then turn to the formation of an alliance - examining how to select a partner, which structure to choose and how to negotiate. Following, we discuss post-formation issues of partner relationships, management of the alliance, performance evaluation and alliance termination. We conclude the course with sessions devoted towards managing a portfolio of alliances and network management in general.
MGMT 4980 Graduate Internship in Mgmt (0-10 Credits)
Hours and times arranged by student.
MGMT 4991 Independent Study (1-10 Credits)
Individual research and report. Hours and times arranged by student.
MGMT 4992 Directed Study (1-4 Credits)
MGMT 4995 Independent Research (1-10 Credits)
MGMT 6300 Seminar in Leadership Strategy Research (4 Credits)
The field of strategy is broad and covers a diverse set of ‘macro’ organizational theories and topics. In this course, you will have a solid overview of research in the field of strategy. This course will enable you to develop a conceptual view of the field and its theoretical roots, topics, and branches and begin to apply strategic management theories to address original research questions and to solve problems within your own organizations. This will require you to critique extant knowledge and to identify what is missing and what is needed to advance understanding. Finally, this course will provide a beginning point for your knowledge of strategy theories that can guide future pursuits. That is, it is not possible to cover the immense strategy literature in one semester but this course should provide you with the knowledge needed to explore the field of strategy on your own as you move forward.
MGMT 6301 Ethical Leadership Research Seminar (4 Credits)
The seminar focuses an exploration of the role of ethics from the lens of a leader. In this area, the course examines a range of ethical and social performance issues and challenges that leaders must confront. Our goal is to broaden student understanding of the different theoretical arguments and tensions in this area, with a focus on issues faced by modern day organizations.