Communication Management (COMM)
COMM 4001 Portfolio Foundations (0 Credits)
Master’s and certificate-seeking students in Communication Management must register for and take Portfolio Foundations in their first quarter in the program. Students must complete the course and assessment-related tasks, including writing their learning goals, in order to pass the course. Non-completion of this required course will result in a no-pass grade on student transcripts.
COMM 4002 Effective Facilitation and Presentation (4 Credits)
The evolution and increasing presence of technology in the workplace has changed the way we conduct meetings, present information, and facilitate in-person and virtual group conversations. In this course, students hone their presentation and facilitation skills by assessing their audience, purpose, and the desired outcomes of the engagement. Students practice using appropriate and memorable visual aids in order to maximize audience and/or participant engagement. Students employ communication strategies to improve openness and receptivity to information and ideas. Whether facilitating high-level face-to-face meetings, conducting virtual interactions, or presenting to groups, students will gain the skills and confidence needed for effective communication across varied delivery methods.
COMM 4006 Building High-Performing Teams (4 Credits)
High-performing teams are invaluable to every organization. Ensuring productive and satisfying group and team interactional outcomes in organizational, professional, and personal settings can be difficult. Students focus on theory, application, and the practice of working together to learn the fundamentals of building high-performing teams. Students learn about the development of group dynamics, assessment, and leadership while also gaining knowledge about their strengths and weaknesses in teams, developing new skills, and learning how to enhance productivity while reducing barriers to effective communication.
COMM 4010 Business Fundamentals for Communicators (4 Credits)
Communications leaders must speak the language of business to effectively craft strategies, execute deliverables, and measure outcomes that create tangible value and advance their organizations’ objectives. Whether in an industry, public sector, or non-profit role, these leaders gain an edge through supplementing strong technical literacy with the ability to assess operational priorities and execute deliverables accordingly. In this class, students will sharpen their understanding of balance sheets and budgets; demystify key aspects of Information Technology infrastructure (intranets, cloud and on-premises computing, databases, security, etc.); delve into various organizational and divisional/departmental models, functions, and political positions; address the benefits and challenges of globalization and cross-cultural communication; and touch on an assortment of other relevant topics, including managing upward and workflow prioritization. Along the way, students will hone their strategic planning competencies and perspectives by putting all elements learned in this course together. Materials and assessments are geared toward application in relevant contexts.
COMM 4016 Persuasion and Influence (4 Credits)
The ability to write and speak in a persuasive manner is often the difference between success and failure. In this hands-on course, students learn to 1) recognize persuasive activities; 2) develop skills in persuading others; and 3) develop skills in defending themselves against unwanted persuasive activities. In this course, students will examine a variety of concepts, techniques, and tools designed to improve the persuasiveness of written and spoken interactions. Students will discuss persuasion both in the sense of how people behave and in the sense of how people use language. Students will also discuss how people argue and how persuasive techniques can be used not so much to "win" an argument but to gain agreement with others. Throughout the course, students will learn to use persuasive techniques in an ethical manner.
COMM 4020 Understanding Professional Communication (4 Credits)
In this course, students develop and refine interpersonal, intercultural, and organizational communication competencies while applying foundational communication models and concepts to a variety of contexts. The mastery of these communication skills leads to more productive written, virtual, and face-to-face interactions, resulting in personal, professional, and organizational success.
COMM 4030 Managing Learning in Organizations (4 Credits)
In today’s highly competitive information society, there is a tremendous need for continuous learning and employee development at all levels of an organization. New knowledge is the foundational resource for the creation and implementation of new visions, structures, and outcomes leading to organizational success. The learning organization, when effectively managed, is engaged in continuous improvement, and grows beyond its current state to widen its creative capacity for the future. In this course, students explore concepts, processes, models, and tools to cultivate a learning organization, and to manage the learning and development function within an organization. The focus of this course is on preparing students to be able to identify major business challenges and the competencies needed to support them from a learning and development perspective.
COMM 4032 Managing Organizational Change (4 Credits)
This course prepares students to create and implement effective communication strategies for change management. The course begins with a discussion of seminal organizational change models, how these models support change management communications, and how change affects employees and individuals. Concepts and practices for facilitating change communications are explored, as well as methods of supporting change leaders. Students develop competencies in change communication through discussion, lecture, video, and change assessment inventories.
COMM 4035 Communicating Across Cultures (4 Credits)
There is a growing need to communicate effectively across cultural differences. Writer James Neuliep defines culture as an accumulated pattern of values, beliefs, and behaviors shared by an identifiable group of people with a common history and verbal and nonverbal code system. Culture pervades every aspect of the communicative process. This course uses a contextual approach to examine the ways culture, communication, context, and power intersect in intercultural communication interactions. Students will identify and analyze obstacles and barriers to effective intercultural communication. Finally, students will examine strategies and skills needed to become a competent and effective intercultural communicator.
COMM 4045 Applied Critical Thinking in Communication (4 Credits)
This course provides an examination of the critical thinking processes and models of decision making and problem solving. The suitability, usage, and effectiveness of critical thinking models in achieving positive organizational outcomes are emphasized. Faculty and student perspectives and experiences, along with case studies, demonstrate applications of the critical thinking and problem solving processes within various communication settings and specialties.
COMM 4050 Communication and Society: Theories and Applications (4 Credits)
In this course, students develop a command of foundational media frameworks, especially theories of media production and media consumption. By the end of this course, students should be able to implement theoretical concepts in their professional environments. Students will learn to deploy theoretical concepts that help them understand the various roles that media play in culture and society. To this end, students will develop written and visual projects that evaluate the following: media industries that produce media messages, meanings embedded in those messages, and media audiences who interpret media messages.
COMM 4140 Marketing Strategy and Process (4 Credits)
Creating and sustaining competitive advantage is driven by strategies that integrate people, process, and systems. In this application-oriented course, students will examine the fundamentals of marketing, develop the insights and skills to formulate and implement sound marketing decisions, and apply ethical marketing strategies which contribute to the overall business (for-profit and non-for-profit) performance. Students will apply strategic concepts through discussion and teamwork. Throughout the quarter, students will examine how information and research is used to inform marketing management decisions to all level of the organization, including external stakeholders. Because marketing communication plays such a critical role in marketing success, integrating different types of communication channels will be an emphasis.
COMM 4144 Public Relations Strategies and Process (4 Credits)
In a complex global environment, business, government, nonprofit, and other organizations require professional public relations practitioners who can effectively develop two-way relationships with constituents/publics to enable strategic and effective communication processes. This course explores the essential components of public relations through an examination of the profession, its publics, and effective processes. Areas studied include the nature and history of public relations; applying theories; use of strategy; the value of relationship development; an overview of the range of PR tactics; the evolving role of digital communications and social media to PR; and the importance of ethics and transparency in PR practice.
COMM 4145 Public Relations Writing and Tactics (4 Credits)
Leveraging effective and persuasive writing to develop relationships with media and other target audiences is an integral part of public relations. This course deepens students’ knowledge of the strategic use of public relations tactics, while ensuring they become effective, creative, clear, and concise architects and translators of the written word. To assist in this development, public relations practitioners have a number of communication tools at their disposal. Determining the correct tool to use is based on a strategic approach to all public relations efforts. Professionals must consider their objectives, publics, and key messages in choosing tactics to effectively influence the intended audience. In this course, students examine the purposes, style, format, content, and distribution of tactics used to support public relations programs and the concepts behind generating effective public relations copy. Tactics such as news releases, fact sheets, media alerts/advisories, feature articles, newsletters, emails, pitches, brochures, and social media will enable the creation of a public relations writing portfolio by the end of class.
COMM 4150 Reputation Management & Crisis Communication (4 Credits)
Reputation management is the process of tracking, maintaining, and defending a consistent message and positive image across all media. It applies to corporations and individuals, to billion-dollar brands and grassroots causes. Today’s reputation management integrates public relations, search engine optimization (SEO), content marketing, and social media management. It requires constant monitoring and participation in the dialogues that comprise modern media as the traditional roles of sender and receiver merge and evolve. Awareness of the ethical and global considerations surrounding the digital landscape is imperative.
As digital presence has become the front lines of reputation management, systems use various predefined criteria for processing complex data to report behavior and activity surrounding a reputation, thereby automating the process of determining positive sentiment, influence, and trustworthiness.
This course will present the history of managing reputations in the mass media era, from the dawn of the 20th century to present day. Through the study of proactive and reactive programs, students will learn how to apply reputation management principles in times of quiet and crisis, monitoring, positioning, and measuring a brand's presence online.
COMM 4155 Public Relations Research and Measurement (4 Credits)
Public relations practitioners leverage research at the formative stage of every campaign: during the campaign to measure effectiveness, and at the conclusion of a campaign, to show results. This requires strategic processes to guide organizations toward the best possible actions in creating and sustaining relationships with target publics. This course introduces students to research methods available to public relations professionals, which are dependent on writing measurable objectives to drive accurate evaluation during and following a campaign. Students will explore how to creatively, effectively, efficiently, and ethically adapt research methods to practical application based on available budget, time constraints, and other resources. They then justify these methods to potential clients.
COMM 4200 Instructional Design (4 Credits)
Designing training that maximizes results is a central concern in organizations. Students in this course identify the elements of effective learning design, formally and informally, for organizations and professional arenas. Students will strategize instructional approaches in order to meet organizational needs and objectives. Students will create an instructional design product that can be applied appropriately in professional settings.
COMM 4203 Adult Learning Strategies and Theories (4 Credits)
Adult learning is very different from the learning processes in children. Adults bring a great deal of experience to the learning situation and are intent on the application of their newfound knowledge and skills. The factors that determine how adults learn, as well as appropriate instructional strategies to best reach these learners, are discussed. Students in this course focus on using adult learning principles to strategically design training materials and facilitate adult learning in various workplace settings.
COMM 4206 Evaluating Learning and Development Effectiveness (4 Credits)
Assessment and evaluation enable learning and development professionals to determine if learners acquired the intended content, knowledge, skills and/or attitudes; if the benefits of the training endeavors are worth the costs; whether training has met organizational goals; and if further training is necessary. Through case studies, practice exercises, and the development of an authentic assessment plan, students learn how to design, interpret, and apply different types of learning and development evaluation concepts and methods to their respective or intended work settings.
COMM 4220 Conflict Resolution Strategies and Process (4 Credits)
Conflict is a natural and common part of human interaction. This course prepares students to thoughtfully and creatively manage and resolve conflict in interpersonal and organizational contexts. Students study the sources, causes, and dynamics of conflict in order to explain and predict the patterns of conflict interactions. Students analyze case studies and develop the most appropriate conflict management and resolution strategies based on analysis and evaluation of the personal, interpersonal, historical, and cultural dynamics of a given conflict. By focusing on the application of conflict resolutions strategies and processes, students develop their interpersonal, analytical, and managerial competencies to creatively address conflict in a variety of situations.
COMM 4222 Negotiation Strategies and Process (4 Credits)
Negotiation is at the core of dispute resolution. This course presents the theoretical groundwork for interest-based dispute resolution upon which principled negotiation and other dispute resolution methods are founded. Topics include the definition of the negotiation process, different types of negotiation, and negotiation strategies. Students have an opportunity to practice and compare different negotiation techniques. Teaching methods are experiential in nature and include mini-lectures, discussions, and role-plays. Students also develop strategies for managing challenging negotiations and breakdowns.
COMM 4226 Managing Organizational Conflict (4 Credits)
Conflict is a part of all businesses, government, and nonprofit organizations. It is a product of human existence and diversity in an interrelated society. Though many people fear conflict as a threat to a productive work environment, it is not conflict itself that jeopardizes harmony but unresolved conflict, and the associated costs are well documented. Organziations increasingly recognize that conflict need not carry costly financial and interpersonal burdens and can, in fact, serve as a productive change agent. Students in this course explore the nature and sources of organizational conflict and facilitate development of practical skills to recognize and manage conflict using case studies, exercises, speakers, and field research. Students are introduced to the concept of various conflict resolution methods, including individual initiative, negotiation, mediation, restorative justice, and arbitration. This course is well suited for leaders and aspiring leaders in any profession who want to increase their interpersonal capability and enhance their value in organizations.
COMM 4235 Integrating Learning and Development Technologies (4 Credits)
Organizational learning and talent development are changing rapidly in the face of staggering technological advances. As organizations become increasingly decentralized, teams interact virtually, and collaboration becomes dependent on digital tools. In this context, it is imperative that learning and development professionals harness technology to meet the changing needs of individuals and the places/spaces in which they work. In this course, students explore the latest technological trends in Learning and Development, while also learning how to evaluate technologies for their appropriateness in meeting organizational learning and development goals. In recognition of the rapidly changing nature of this field, students also develop strategies for future learning to keep their work relevant and engaged.
COMM 4270 Forty-Hour Mediation (4 Credits)
This course is designed specifically for individuals interested in becoming mediators or integrating mediation skills into their current positions within (but not limited to) human resources, public service, healthcare, law, non-profit management, etc. The course satisfies the initial training requirements for professional mediators in accordance with the Mediation Association of Colorado (the MAC) and the Association for Conflict Resolution (ACR). The DU mediation training is distinctive for several reasons, including: small class size (limited to 24 people) and the opportunity to network with accomplished mediators and mediation coaches.
COMM 4301 Brand Management Strategies (4 Credits)
Organizations of all types – private, public, and nonprofit – increasingly recognize that a strong brand can ultimately become one of an organization’s greatest assets. Executing on a strategy designed to build long-lasting brand recognition, resonance, and loyalty is a critical marketing responsibility. In today’s dynamic business landscape, brand management requires complex decisions to create meaning and value for consumers. This course covers the essential components of branding with a focus on how to maintain consistent alignment between brand vision and marketing strategies. Students are strongly encouraged to take at least one other marketing concentration course prior to this course.
COMM 4306 UX Strategies and Methods (4 Credits)
This course will cover user experience strategies, tactics, and methodologies. Students will learn how to think about UX from a high level, set goals for a product or project, and turn the strategies into concrete steps. Students will learn how to employ research, design thinking, usability testing and analysis to enhance the user experience.
COMM 4307 Developing Content for User Experience (4 Credits)
This course will explore how strategically developed content is a cornerstone of the user experience. Students will learn the User Experience Design workflow and how to advocate, research and deliver content for digital experiences. The course will also cover how to measure the business impact of content strategy, as well as how to scale content strategy as a practice within organizations.
COMM 4318 Mobile Marketing (4 Credits)
Mobile technologies can be found in your pocket, on your coffee table, at your workplace, and even on your wrist. If a business's marketing plan doesn't include mobile, that business plan simply isn't complete. The growing field of mobile marketing has created a new set of communication imperatives and business opportunities. This course is designed to familiarize students to the tools used to implement a robust mobile marketing strategy. Current and future organization and business leaders will learn mobile marketing best practices and gain the knowledge to implement and analyze the results of their mobil marketing efforts.
COMM 4320 Social Media Strategy (4 Credits)
Social media is a critical communication channel that is constantly evolving. Learn to plan, manage, measure, and anticipate social media efforts that add value to your target audiences through organic and paid options. In this course, students will explore motivations that prompt audiences to engage, identify the tools and technology needed to execute social media campaigns or communication interventions, and devise effective strategy and tactics needed to cut through the noise. Create a stronger online presence, show personality, and build your brand by gaining skills needed to successfully communicate on behalf of any organization or individual using social media. Through online research, case studies, and practical exercises, students will gain first-hand knowledge of social media techniques and how to leverage social media as a communications tool.
COMM 4321 Digital Marketing Communication (4 Credits)
At its most basic level, digital marketing leverages digital technologies and media that allow brands to promote their products and services to very targeted audiences in a highly measurable way. Digital marketing as a category has become so integral to overall marketing and communication efforts that the term “digital” as a differentiator may soon become obsolete. Digital marketing continues to grow and evolve, so the focus of this course is to provide an expansive grasp of digital marketing communication tactics, including how to utilize them and how to integrate them into the marketing mix. Through discussion, research, application, and evaluation of case studies and projects, students will learn about the essential tactics utilized by digital marketers.
COMM 4323 Email Marketing (4 Credits)
Today's consumer expectations for relevant, engaging, and timely messages have made email marketing an essential component of the multichannel marketing mix. The creation and delivery of personalized, targeted messages to subscribers can drive both engagement and ROI.
This class examines the development and integration of email marketing (including tools, copy, design, service providers, tracking and measurement) to enhance business relationships, encourage customer loyalty and acquire new customers.
COMM 4324 Marketing Analytics (4 Credits)
Marketing analytics leverages business metrics to better understand marketing performance and return on investment (ROI). Through data analysis, attribution modeling, and reporting, marketers are able to measure and optimize their initiatives. This class focuses on developing a performance measurement system for marketing channels, incorporating measuring website traffic, conducting market research, estimating usage patterns, and interpreting website visitor behavior. Key performance indicators are tied to marketing goals and tactical campaigns. Students will conduct a review of online metrics, compare marketing analytics vendors, and develop ways to communicate performance.
COMM 4325 Search Marketing (4 Credits)
Search marketing is a communicator's medium and a vital part of any marketing mix. This type of digital marketing specifically focuses on increasing a website's visibility in the search engine results pages (SERPs) through organic Search Engine Optimization (SEO) and pay-per-click (PPC) while also drawing attention to quality website content or well-crafted paid ad messaging. This class will provide deep insight into the tools and tactics of search marketing. Students will learn what makes search marketing demanding and how to overcome the challenges presented by regular search engine algorithm updates, increasing mobile device usage, and the influence of social media. Two key techniques of SEM will be explored: search engine optimization (SEO) to improve results from the natural or organic listings, and paid search marketing, or pay-per-click (PPC), to deliver results from the sponsored listings within search engines. A variety of search practices, including mobile and local, will be explored.
COMM 4326 Digital Campaign Management (4 Credits)
Any successful marketing or communication campaign — digital or traditional — is dependent on many factors, from its strategic beginnings through its final readout. However, perhaps the most critical factors driving the success of a digital campaign are rooted within the human, technical, and business processes through which that campaign comes to life. Assuming a foundational understanding of digital marketing techniques (i.e., web, search marketing, social media, etc.), this course will focus on the practical management of digital marketing and communication campaign efforts, including planning, management, and measurement. Pre-requisite: COMM 4321.
COMM 4327 Digital Content Creation (4 Credits)
Content is at the heart of any communication intervention, and creating quality digital content requires an understanding of how digital users experience and consume content. Whether driving consumer behavior or keeping co-workers engaged and effective, quality content will help deliver messages clearly and persuasively. In this course, students explore the relationships between the strategies that drive content creation, the tools used to deliver messages, and the theory behind making content work for the target audience. In addition to hands-on exposure to a variety of content creation tools, students will learn key components of visual communication, the principles of user experience design, and how to match tools to strategies.
COMM 4701 Topics in Communication Management (4 Credits)
The content of this course varies each time it is offered. Topics may include time-sensitive issues in the field of communication, elective courses that are not scheduled regularly during the course of the year, or advanced inquiry into core-course subjects, such as ethics, human communication theory, or interpersonal communication. Each time the course is offered, the specific content is announced in the quarterly course schedule. Depending on the subject matter, students may be required to have completed prerequisite courses.
COMM 4900 Communication Inquiry, Analysis, and Trends (4 Credits)
Students will actively engage in their chosen communication field in order to develop the essential networking, writing, inquiry, and analysis skills required to be successful professional communicators. The course has three central components: first, students will develop professional networks to cultivate mentorship, gain intimate knowledge of the field, and become familiar with the field’s norms and values. Second, students will strengthen their business-writing skills by creating industry-standard documents, communicating clearly and effectively, and activating their voice to convey their points with authenticity. Finally, students will explore their chosen field of communication to determine the current state of the field and its future trajectory, while also exploring how they may adapt and grow to meet the demands of the future.
COMM 4901 Capstone Project (4 Credits)
The Capstone Project provides students the opportunity to research a topic, problem, or issue within their field of study, and work individually with a Capstone advisor. Similar in weight to a thesis, but more flexible, this final project will synthesize and apply core concepts acquired from the program. The student will select an appropriate Capstone advisor who is knowledgeable in the field of study to work closely with and whom can guide the research project. Evaluation will be focused on the quality and professionalism of applied research and writing; critical and creative thinking; problem-solving skills; knowledge of research design, method, and implementation; and contribution to the field and topic of study. Please see the Capstone Guidelines for additional details. Prerequisites: A Capstone Proposal that has been approved by both the Capstone Advisor and the Academic Director, acceptance as a degree candidate, completion of at least 40 quarter-hours (including all core courses) with a cumulative GPA of 3.0 or better. A final grade of a B- or better is required to pass.
COMM 4902 Capstone Seminar (4 Credits)
The Capstone Seminar is a graduate seminar in which students utilize the knowledge and skills gained through the degree program to create a culminating work that critically addresses a problem in their degree field of study. The students produce a Capstone of 7000-8000 words that presents a position on a relevant problem, supports the position with professional and academic literature, analyzes and tests the proposed solution, and discusses the findings as related to the field of study. The seminar is dependent upon quality, collegial discussion, and feedback of students’ research and work products, under the facilitation of a faculty member. The course structure guides the students through the process of independent, secondary research and writing of a Capstone. No primary research is allowed. Students generate the course content through ongoing discussion and peer feedback on the Capstone process and individual topic areas under investigation. Students professionally and academically communicate through written work and oral presentation. Students must have: Acceptance as a degree candidate, completion of at least 40 quarter-hours (including all core courses) with a cumulative GPA of 3.0 or better. A final grade of B- or better is required in this course to meet degree requirements. Students must complete the Capstone Seminar in one quarter; no incomplete grades are assigned.
COMM 4904 Interdisciplinary Capstone Seminar (4 Credits)
The Interdisciplinary Capstone Seminar is a graduate seminar in which students utilize the knowledge and skills gained through the degree program to create a culminating work that critically addresses a problem or issue in the degree field of study. Members of the class will include students from various UCOL programs, representing multiple topics of study. On campus offerings of this course include required online components. The student produces a paper of 7000-8000 words that presents a position on a relevant problem or issue, supports the position with professional and academic work in the field, analyzes and tests the paper position, and discusses the role of the findings within the field of study. Students professionally and academically communicate their findings through written work and oral presentations. The seminar is dependent upon active and collegial discussion and critique of student research and work under the facilitation of a faculty member, and it is governed by the quality of participation and contributions of the students. Students must have: Acceptance as a degree candidate, completion of at least 40 quarter-hours (including all core courses) with a cumulative GPA of 3.0 or better. A final grade of B- or better is required in this course to meet degree requirements. Students must complete the Capstone Seminar in one quarter; no incomplete grades are assigned.
COMM 4905 Storytelling through Research and Measurement (4 Credits)
Whether conducting a needs assessment, attempting to understand your audience, or developing a new product, communication professionals regularly harness the power of research, measurement, and storytelling. Divided into three parts that culminate in an individualized project, this course explores essential research methods; strategies for measuring the impact of communication interventions; and the fundamentals of telling data-driven stories that persuade stakeholders and demonstrate ROI. On their own, each of these pieces is informative; together they enable confident problem solving, enhance organizational decision making, and influence external stakeholder behavior.
COMM 4920 Portfolio Capstone (4 Credits)
The Portfolio Capstone course provides students the opportunity to reflect upon the work they have done throughout their graduate studies at University College and synthesize their learning. Students in the seminar produce deliverables that include: (1) a thorough annotation of their portfolio, a process requiring critical and creative thinking about their educational experience, and (2) a pinnacle project that identifies, analyzes, and elaborates significant themes in their program experience, evaluates their accomplishments, connects their coursework to their professional goals, and assesses those goals in the context of their chosen field. Students must complete the Portfolio Capstone with a grade of B or better.
COMM 4980 Internship (1-4 Credits)
The Organizational and Professional Communication Internship is designed to offer students a purposeful experience in a practical, industry related setting. The internship is an individualized learning experience. A training plan is created for each student in conjunction with the internship site supervisor to provide experiences related to the skills and knowledge covered in the certificate and master's programs as well as professional goals. Students are responsible for finding their own internship site and proposing their internship ideas. University College will send notification to all COMM students if they hear of internship possibilities. Students may also work through the DU career center, to explore opportunities for internship experiences. To be eligible for an internship, completion of a minimum of 28 hours of graduate coursework in the field of specialty is required OR Academic Director approval for students with previous work experience in the field.
COMM 4991 Independent Study (1-8 Credits)
This is an advanced course for students wishing to pursue an independent course of study. Before registering for the independent study, the student must be accepted in a degree program, have earned a grade point average of 3.0 or better, obtained the approval of the department director, and have completed the Independent Study form and filed the form with all appropriate offices. Independent Study is offered only on a for-credit basis.
COMM 4992 Directed Study (1-5 Credits)
This is an advanced course for students wishing to pursue a directed course of study. The student must be accepted in a degree program, have earned a grade point average of 3.0 or better, obtained the approval of the department director, and have completed the Independent Study form and filed the form with all appropriate offices before registering for the independent study. Directed Study is offered only on a for-credit basis.